Itapetininga is a municipality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The population is 160,070 (2017 est.) in an area of 1790 km². The name comes from a Tupi-Guarani language, meaning "dry stone".
It is situated in the southern part of the state, and is known as cidade das escolas, meaning city of schools in Portuguese.
Itapetininga developed along with the "tropeirismo" (Trooping), as a resting point of the cattle dealers, who were mounting groups and villages for the landing, before they travel towards the South. The first nucleus of cattle dealers in the region of Itapetininga appeared in 1724, when it was discovered that the pasture in the region was abundant and the land was fertile for planting. To these factors there was added up the distance to the Sorocaba town - 12 leagues - that was corresponding to a journey of a troop. About 1760, a group of Portuguese, led by Domingos José Vieira, left the first nucleus (today, district of Porto) and formed another, in a high place and surrounded by two streams.
At this time there was an argument between two nucleuses that wanted to be elevated to the condition of town. The results: in April 17, 1770, Simão Barbosa Franco was nominated to establish and administering the new village, and so was left to him the choice of the principal nucleus. Historians tell that a "marching" mule, offered as a present to Simão Barbosa Franco, guaranteed the victory to Domingos José Vieira. The town of Nossa Senhora dos Prazeres de Itapetininga was officially created in 1770 November 5th, when a solemn mass was celebrated by the vicar of the new parish, Priest Inácio of Araújo Ferreira. It is in this date that was agreed to commemorate the anniversary of the municipality.
Besides Simão Barbosa Franco and Domingos José Vieira, an Itu town citizen. Salvador de Oliveira Leme (-nicknamed Sarutayá )- has been included among the historical founders of the municipality, since he was the second captain-mor of Itapetininga (the first one was Domingos José Vieira). The emancipation of the Town of Itapetininga happened in 1852, through the Law nº 11, in 1852, July, the 7th. The law granted judicial autonomy, thus creating to judicature of Itapetininga. The town, however, only became a municipality, in fact, in 1855, March 13, with the name of Itapetininga.
Fearing Indian attack, he discouraged development of the territory's vast interior. Some whites headed nonetheless for Piratininga, a plateau near São Vicente, drawn by its navigable rivers and agricultural potential. Borda do Campo, the plateau settlement, became an official town (Santo André da Borda do Campo) in 1553. The history of São Paulo city proper begins with the founding of a Jesuit mission of the Roman Catholic order of clergy on January 25, 1554—the anniversary of Saint Paul's conversion. The station, which is at the heart of the current city, was named São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga (or just Pateo do Colégio). In 1560, the threat of Indian attack led many to flee from the exposed Santo André da Borda do Campo to the walled fortified Colegio. Two years later, the Colégio was besieged. Though the town survived, fighting took place sporadically for another three decades.
By 1600, the town had about 1,500 citizens and 150 households. Little was produced for export, save a number of agricultural goods. The isolation was to continue for many years, as the development of Brazil centred on the sugar plantations in the north-east.
The city's location, at the mouth of the Tietê-Paranapanema river system (which winds into the interior), made it an ideal base for another activity—enslaving expeditions. The economics were simple. Enslaved manpower for Brazil's northern sugar plantations were in short supply. Enslaved Africans were expensive, so demand for indigenous captives soared. The task was, nonetheless, hard, if not impossible, to achieve.
The uprising started on July 9, 1932, after five protesting students were killed by government troops on May 23, 1932. On the wake of their deaths, a movement called MMDC (from the initials of the names of each of the four students killed, Martins, Miragaia, Dráusio and Camargo) started. A fifth victim, Alvarenga, was also shot that night, but died months later.
Revolutionary troops entrenched in the battlefield. In a few months, the state of São Paulo rebelled against the federal government. Counting on the solidarity of three other powerful states, (Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro), the politicians of São Paulo expected a quick war. However, that solidarity was never translated into actual support, and the São Paulo civil war was won by the Federation on October 2, 1932.
In spite of its military defeat, some of the movement's main demands were finally granted by Vargas afterwards: the appointment of a non-military state Governor, the election of a Constituent Assembly and, finally, the enactment of a new Constitution in 1934. However that Constitution was short lived, as in 1937, amidst growing extremism on the left and right wings of the political spectrum, Vargas closed the National Congress and enacted another Constitution, which established an authoritarian regime called Estado Novo.
The towns of Campinas, Ribeirão Preto, Bauru, São José do Rio Preto, Piracicaba, Jaú, Marilia, Botucatu, Assis, and Ourinhos are important university, engineering, agricultural, zootechnique, technology, or health sciences centers. The Instituto Butantan in São Paulo is a herpetology serpentary science center that collects snakes and other poisonous animals, as it produces venom antidotes. The Instituto Pasteur produces medical vaccines. The state is also at the vanguard of ethanol production, soybeans, aircraft construction in São José dos Campos, and its rivers have been important in generating electricity through its hydroelectric plants.
Moreover, São Paulo is one of the world's most important sources of beans, rice, wheat, orange and other fruit, coffee, sugar cane, alcohol, flowers and vegetables, corn, cattle, swine, milk, cheese, wine, and oil producers. Textile and manufacturing centers such as Rua José Paulino and 25 de Marco in São Paulo city is a magnet for retail shopping and shipping that attracts customers from the whole country and as far as Cape Verde and Angola in Africa.