San Miguel de Tucumán (Spanish pronunciation: [san miˈɣel de tukuˈman]); usually called simply Tucumán) is the capital of the Tucumán Province, located in northern Argentina 1,311 kilometres (815 mi) from Buenos Aires. It is the fifth-largest city of Argentina after Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Rosario and Mendoza and the most important of the northern region. The Spanish Conquistador Diego de Villarroel (es) founded the city in 1565 in the course of an expedition from present-day Peru. Tucumán moved to its present site in 1685.
After those battles, Belgrano established a circle-shaped fortress known as "La Ciudadela", located 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) from the current Plaza de la Independencia (former Plaza Mayor). Because it had patriot barracks and was located on an intermediate point between the Río de la Plata and the Alto Perú and Santa Cruz de la Sierra, San Miguel de Tucumán was designated as city venue for the Congress of the Independence. On July 9, 1816, the Independence of Argentina was declared, not only of Spain but any other foreign domination. The act of the Independence was signed at the Casa de Tucumán, also named "Casa Histórica" or "Casa de la Independencia".
By 1850 the city had increased its population considerably, overpassing the estimated registers. Because of that, in 1870 it was proposed that the city be expanded, setting new limits. During those years, the first railway line reached the city, built by British-owned Córdoba Central Railway. The immigrants arriving in the region (most of them were Spanish, Arabs, Jews and Italians) influenced the architectural style that adapted to those new cultures, leaving the original colonial style behind. Therefore, new buildings in the city were made in Neoclassical, eclectic and picturesque styles.
Universities in the city include the public National University of Tucumán and the National Technological University, and the private (and Catholic) Saint Thomas Aquinas University of the North and the Saint Paul T University.
Since August 2008, the city has been the location of trials of high-ranking former military officers charged with war crimes from the 1976–83 dictatorship. Luciano Menéndez, a former colonel, was convicted for crimes against humanity, including the kidnapping and disappearance of senator (Guillermo Vargas Aignasse) on the night of the golpe (coup) in 1976. Many Abuelas de la Plaza de Mayo (Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo) have been seen in and around the Tucumán trials. The convictions of Menéndez and Ricardo Bussi (es) were the first of this round of prosecution of military leaders of the Jorge Rafael Videla dictatorship. Their sentencings were seen as symbolic victories for the mothers and grandmothers whose children or husbands were "disappeared" by the military during that dark period of Argentine history.
San Miguel de Tucuman lies in a transition zone between temperate climates to the south, and subtropical climates to the north. It has a humid subtropical climate (Cwa) under the Köppen climate classification, with vastly more precipitation in the summer than in the winter. The average annual temperature is 19.3 °C (66.7 °F). The precipitation pattern is monsoonal: out of the 966 mm (38.0 in) that fall annually, most of it falls in the summer months, while the winter months tend to be drier.
The average temperature in winter is 13.6 °C (56.5 °F). July is the coldest month with a mean temperature of 12.1 °C (53.8 °F). Frosts are uncommon, with some years recording no frosts at all. Usually, when frosts occur, they are light with temperatures rarely falling below −2 °C (28.4 °F). Winters are sunny, averaging 9–12 clear days and 9–12 overcast days per month. Snow is extremely rare, but in 2007, it reached the city center. There have been other episodes of sleet and snow in the mountains around the city, and in 2010, sleet was reported downtown again, a very rare event.
Spring and fall are transition seasons. Springs are very short, and by October, summer weather settles in the city, with highs beyond 30 °C (86.0 °F) very common. This is due to the dryness of the season: daytime highs are close to those in the summer, when rainfall and clouds are persistent, whereas spring is often sunny and arid. April marks the beginning of the fall, but temperatures remain near summer levels: 21 to 27 °C (69.8 to 80.6 °F) during the day, and 12 to 18 °C (53.6 to 64.4 °F) during the night. Rainfall decreases as fall progresses.
The creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776 meant the end of the convoys from Perú to Buenos Aires. Tucumán, with 20,000 inhabitants by that time, suffered also from the British imports from the newly opened customs of Buenos Aires, no longer under the monopoly of the Spanish Crown.
In 1783, the Intendency of Tucumán was divided; Tucumán was set under the control of the Intendency of Salta del Tucumán, with its centre in Salta. José de San Martín arrived in Tucumán in 1813 and installed the military school. In 1814, the Intendency of Salta was divided into the present provinces.
On July 9, 1816, at the Congress of Tucumán, the Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata ("United Provinces of the Río de la Plata") declared their independence from Spain. Internal conflicts delayed the final fusion of the provinces into the República Argentina.
Following the failure of Argentina's first independence-era government, the Directorio, Governor Bernabé Aráoz on March 22, 1820, proclaimed the creation of the Federal Republic of Tucumán. The experiment collapsed, however, when the neighboring provinces of Catamarca and Santiago del Estero withdrew the following year.
The eastern parts have an average annual temperature of 18 to 20 °C (64.4 to 68.0 °F). Summers are hot with mean temperatures averaging between 24 to 26 °C (75.2 to 78.8 °F) while in winter, the mean temperatures are between 10 to 12 °C (50.0 to 53.6 °F). Easternmost parts of the province, which borders the Chaco region are home to the highest and lowest temperatures in the province where absolute maximum temperatures can exceed 40 °C (104.0 °F) while absolute minimum temperatures can reach close to −7 °C (19.4 °F) owing to the accumulation of cold air that descends from the mountains. At higher altitudes, the climate is cooler with summer temperatures averaging 20 °C (68.0 °F) and winter temperatures averaging 10 °C (50.0 °F). The annual temperature in the higher altitudes is 12 to 14 °C (53.6 to 57.2 °F) at an altitude of 2,500 metres (8,202.1 ft) above sea level. Within the valleys located between the mountains, temperatures are cooler with a mean annual temperature of 13.1 °C (55.6 °F) (summers average 17.1 °C (62.8 °F) while winters average 9.0 °C (48.2 °F)) in the Tafi valley.
Precipitation in the lowlands ranges from 600 mm (24 in) in the east, to close to 1,200 mm in the foothills (48 in), in a very monsoonal pattern with 4-5 completely dry winter months, and a peak of about 200 mm (7.9 in) in the rainiest summer month.
The eastward-facing slopes concentrate not only the heaviest precipitation, with spots around 1,800 mm (71 in) falling mostly in the 5 months of the summer monsoon, but also have a unique characteristic, which is that during part of the year, they are constantly immersed in a thick fog, providing humidity for the development of a thick jungle. The climate quickly becomes decidedly temperate with altitude, supporting different kinds of forest which even receive some snow every winter, finally reaching high-altitude grasslands with cool, windy weather year-round.
Argentina: San Miguel De Tucuman